The Rooney Rule requires National Football League teams to interview minority candidates for head coaching and senior football operation jobs. It is often cited as an example of affirmative action. It was established in 2003.
 History and origin
The rule is named for Dan Rooney, the owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers and the chairman of the league's diversity committee, and indirectly the Rooney family in general, due to the Steelers' long history of giving African Americans opportunities to serve in team leadership roles.
The rule was established to ensure that minority coaches, especially African Americans, were considered for high-level coaching positions. Until 1979, Fritz Pollard was the only minority head coach in NFL history (which was during the league's early years in the 1920s) and by the time the Rule was implemented, only Tom Flores, Art Shell, Dennis Green, Ray Rhodes, Tony Dungy, and Herman Edwards had ever held head coaching jobs (Only Dungy and Edwards were actively head coaching at the time of the Rule's implementation, though Shell and Green would later return to head coaching). Dungy in particular had struggled for years before getting a head coaching job; he was often promoted as a head coaching candidate by Chuck Noll when Dungy was an assistant under Noll in the 1980s with the Steelers, but he would not become a head coach until 1996 when he took over the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
Since the Rooney Rule was established, several NFL franchises have hired African American head coaches, including the Steelers themselves, who hired Mike Tomlin before their 2007 season (The Steelers, however, had already interviewed Ron Rivera who is a Hispanic minority to fulfill the requirement before interviewing Tomlin, and Rooney himself contends that Tomlin's hiring did not result from the Rule). At the start of the 2006 season, the overall percentage of African American coaches had jumped to 22%, up from 6% prior to the Rooney Rule.
The rule does not apply if an assistant coach has language in his contract guaranteeing him the head coaching job in case of an opening. For example, this was the case when Mike Martz took over as head coach of the St. Louis Rams before the 2000 season. Also, the requirement does not apply if the assistant coach taking over the head position is a minority, as was the case with Mike Singletary and the San Francisco 49ers in late 2008.
As of June 15, 2009 (2009 -06-15)[update], Rooney Rule requirements now apply to all searches for senior football operations positions within the NFL, regardless of a team's title for that position. It now also includes all ethnic minorities, not just African-Americans.
Recently, legal scholars have advocated for extending the Rooney Rule to college football, where the number of minority head coaches hovers around 6%, which is significantly lower than the 12.4% of the total US population which is African-American.
 Detroit Lions case, 2003
In 2003, the NFL fined the Detroit Lions $200,000 for failure to interview African-American candidates for the team's vacant head coaching job. After Marty Mornhinweg was fired, the Lions immediately hired former San Francisco 49ers head coach Steve Mariucci to replace him without interviewing any other candidates. The Lions claimed they attempted to interview other candidates but that the African-American candidates withdrew from interviews, believing Mariucci's hiring was inevitable.
 2012 controversial non-hirings and possible rule revision
In the wake of no minority hirings to fill eight head coaching and seven general management vacancies following the conclusion of the 2012 NFL regular season, NFL Executive Vice president of Human Resources Robert Gulliver stated, "While there has been full compliance with the interview requirements of the Rooney Rule and we wish the new head coaches and general managers much success, the hiring results this year have been unexpected and reflect a disappointing lack of diversity." Analysts have pointed the lack of interview offers for Baltimore Ravens' Offensive Coordinator Jim Caldwell, who, as head coach, led the Indianapolis Colts to a 14-2 2009 season along with winning the 2009 American Football Conference title before losing in Super Bowl XLIV, as evidence that the rule needs revision.  Some sports analysts have called upon the NFL to modify the Rooney Rule by requiring NFL teams to interview a minority candidate outside their respective organizations, and extending the rule to include interviews for offensive and defensive coordinators.
 List of minority NFL head coaches
|Interim head coach only|
|Active head coach|
Note: List is correct through December 22, 2012.
|Head coach||Teams||Years||Regular Season||Playoffs||Best Results|
|Pollard, FritzFritz Pollard||Akron Pros, Hammond Pros||1921, 1925||8||4||.667||0||0||0|
|Flores, TomTom Flores||Oakland/LA Raiders, Seattle Seahawks||1979–1987, 1992–1994||97||87||.527||8||3||.727||Won Super Bowl XV and Super Bowl XVIII|
|Shell, ArtArt Shell||Los Angeles Raiders||1989–1994, 2006||56||52||.518||2||3||.400||1990–1991 AFC Championship Game|
|Green, DennisDennis Green||Minnesota Vikings and Arizona Cardinals||1992–2001, 2004–2006||113||94||.546||4||8||.333||1998 and 2000 NFC Championship Game|
|Rhodes, RayRay Rhodes||Philadelphia Eagles and Green Bay Packers||1995–1998, 1999||37||42||.468||1||2||.333||1995 NFC Divisional Game|
|Dungy, TonyTony Dungy||Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Indianapolis Colts||1996–2001, 2002–2008||139||69||.668||9||10||.474||Super Bowl XLI Champion|
|Edwards, HermanHerman Edwards||New York Jets and Kansas City Chiefs||2001–2005, 2006–2008||54||74||.422||2||4||.333||2002, 2004 AFC Divisional Game|
|Rooney Rule Instituted, 2003|
|Lewis, MarvinMarvin Lewis||Cincinnati Bengals||2003—||79||80||1||.496||0||4||.000||1st in AFC North, Lost all AFC Wild-Card games played|
|Smith, LovieLovie Smith||Chicago Bears||2004–2012||81||63||0||.563||3||3||.500||Won 2006 NFC Championship, Lost Super Bowl XLI|
|Robiskie, TerryTerry Robiskie||Washington Redskins*, Cleveland Browns*||2000, 2004||2||7||0||.222||—||—||—||3rd AFC North (with Cleveland)|
|Crennel, RomeoRomeo Crennel||Cleveland Browns, Kansas City Chiefs||2005–2008, 2011–2012||28||55||0||.337||—||—||—||2nd AFC North (with Cleveland)|
|Tomlin, MikeMike Tomlin||Pittsburgh Steelers||2007–||63||33||0||.656||5||3||.667||Won Super Bowl XLIII|
|Thomas, EmmittEmmitt Thomas||Atlanta Falcons*||2007||1||4||0||.200||—||—||—||4th NFC South|
|Singletary, MikeMike Singletary||San Francisco 49ers||2008–2010||18||22||0||.462||—||—||—||2nd NFC West|
|Caldwell, JimJim Caldwell||Indianapolis Colts||2009–2011||26||22||0||.542||2||2||.500||2009 AFC Champion, Lost Super Bowl XLIV|
|Morris, RaheemRaheem Morris||Tampa Bay Buccaneers||2009–2012||17||31||0||.354||—||—||—||3rd NFC South|
|Fewell, PerryPerry Fewell||Buffalo Bills*||2009||3||4||0||.429||—||—||—||4th AFC East|
|Frazier, LeslieLeslie Frazier||Minnesota Vikings||2010–||16||22||0||.421||0||1||.000||2nd NFC North|
|Studesville, EricEric Studesville||Denver Broncos*||2010||1||3||0||.250||—||—||—||4th AFC West|
|Rivera, RonRon Rivera||Carolina Panthers||2011–||13||19||0||.406||—||—||—||2nd NFC South|
- "Thanks to Rooney Rule, doors opened". ESPN. February 9, 2007. http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/playoffs06/news/story?id=2750645.
- "Tomlin proof NFL's Rooney Rule is working as intended". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Associated Press. http://triblive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/sports/steelers/s_489701.html#axzz2IVOkSmXl. Retrieved September 15, 2007.
- Boland, Erik (February 1, 2009). "Steelers' Tomlin didn't force change". News Day. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090204195042/http://newsday.com/sports/football/ny-sptomlin016020047feb01,0,7082584.story.
- Collins, Brian W. (June 2007). "Tackling Unconscious Bias in Hiring Practices: The Plight of the Rooney Rule". New York University Law Review 82 (3): 870–912. ISSN 0028-7881. http://www.law.nyu.edu/journals/lawreview/issues/vol822007/number3/index.htm.
- La Canfora, Jason (January 8, 2008). "The Rooney Rule". The Washington Post. http://blog.washingtonpost.com/redskinsinsider/2008/01/the_rooney_rule.html.
- "49ers to give Singletary multi-year deal". Yahoo! Sports. October 26, 2008. http://sports.yahoo.com/nfl/news?slug=tx49erssingletary&prov=st&type=lgns. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
- Nichols, Michael J. (Fall 2008). "Time for a Hail Mary? With Bleak Prospects of Being Aided by a College Version of the NFL's Rooney Rule, Should Minority College Football Coaches Turn Their Attention to Title VII Litigation?". Virginia Sports & Entertainment Law Journal 8: 147–175. ISSN 1556-9799. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1287345.
- "Lions' Millen fined $200K for not interviewing minority candidates". Associated Press. CBS. July 25, 2003. http://cbs.sportsline.com/nfl/story/6498949. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
- Katzowitz, Josh (January 18, 2013). "NFL looking into lack of minority hiring for head coaching jobs". Eye on Football (CBS). http://www.cbssports.com/nfl/blog/eye-on-football/21576833/nfl-looking-into-lack-of-minority-hiring-for-head-coaching-jobs. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "Minority snubs might lead to Rooney Rule overhaul". USA Today. January 18, 2013. http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nfl/2013/01/18/rooney-rule-minority-hiring-coaches-general-managers/1845371/. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "Modify the Rooney Rule". ESPN. January 13, 2013. http://espn.go.com/espn/commentary/story/_/id/7450944/modify-rooney-rule-include-nfl-hires-offensive-defensive-coordinators. Retrieved January 19, 2013.